Basics of Climatology

Climatology is the study of climate and how it changes over time. This science helps people better understand the atmospheric conditions that cause weather patterns and temperature changes over time.

Basics of Climatology
1. Seasons around the year
1.1. Revolution of Earth & its effect on Seasons
>. The earth moves around the Sun in an elliptical orbit and this movement is responsible for changes of seasons around the year.
source -
Equinox :- March (20-21) - Spring Season
                  September (22-23) - Autumn Season
Q. What if the Earth was not tilted ?
    - There will be equal length of day and night.
>. The area which receive direct ray from the sun, will face high temperature.

            source -

>. When the sunlight will fall directly on the Tropic of Cancer then there will be longest day in Northern Hemisphere and longest night in Southern Hemisphere.

2. Climate and Weather
>. weather is what is observed on any particular day.
>. Climate is an average of weather conditions considered over a span of 30 years.

3. State of matter and heat
>. there are four state of matter i.e., Solids, Liquids, Gases and Plasma but at basics level we have to know or read only about three state of matter - solids, liquids, and gases.
           Source -
>. Role oh heat in conversion of any material from solid to liquid is basically restricted to breakage of bonds which exists b/w all particles of the solid material.
>. Basically heat is responsible for transformation of any material from one state to another. And the same process get reversed when it comes to cooling process.
3.1. Mode of Heating
I. Process of Conduction :- it takes place when two or more bodies of unequal temperature come in contact with each other then, there is a flow of energy from the hotter to cooler body, and this process of flow of energy is known as process of conduction.
II. Process of Convection :- it is the transfer of energy through the movement of liquids and gases.
III. Process of Radiation :-  it is the transfer of energy through air and space by light waves (visible, ultra- violet, and infrared waves). for example - the release of heat from a bonfire, cooking of food, boiling of water, heat that we get from sun is the best example of process of radiation etc..
               Machinedesign Com Sites Machinedesign com Files Uploads 2015 03 Convetion Conduction Radiation Web

?? Long wave and Short wave Radiation??

? hotter bodies emits short wave radiations carrying high energy.


? cooler bodies emits long wave radiations carrying lower energy.


5. Temperature

 >. the degree of hotness or coldness